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The project was originally referred to as Timequake because the Slipgates took the player to a different time and place. Later, when id Software attempted to use the name "Quake", they found that a German company had taken every variation on the word. This German company started insisting that id Software buy the rights to the name. The lawyers for id Software eventually convinced the German company to give, instead of sell, the word to them.
In conjunction with his self-professed affinity for sharing source code, John Carmack has open-sourced most of the major id Software engines under the GNU General Public License. Historically, the source code for each engine has been released once the code base is 5 years old. Consequently, many home grown projects have sprung up porting the code to different platforms, cleaning up the source code, or providing major modifications to the core engine. Wolfenstein 3D, Doom and Quake engine ports are ubiquitous to nearly all platforms capable of running games, such as hand-held PCs, iPods, the PSP, the Nintendo DS and more. Impressive core modifications include DarkPlaces which adds stencil shadow volumes into the original Quake engine along with a more efficient network protocol. Another such project is ioquake3, which maintains a goal of cleaning up the source code, adding features and fixing bugs. Even earlier id Software code, namely for Hovertank 3D and Catacomb 3D, was released in June 2014 by Flat Rock Software.
On November 16, 2022 Bethesda released a statement backing Marty Stratton, Chad Mossholder, and everyone in the id software team. Their statement further claimed that they had evidence to rebut Gordon's claims, without releasing mentioned evidence, and expressed concern that his statement enticed harassment and violence towards the team.
Carmack's skill at 3D programming is widely recognized in the software industry and from its inception, he was id's lead programmer. On August 7, 2013, he joined Oculus VR, a company developing virtual reality headsets, and left id Software on November 22, 2013.
If we compare the hardware accelerated and the software renderer, the two most obvious differences are:Absence of colored lighting
Absence of bilinear filtering
But except for those the engine managed to do amazing things via very clever arrangements of the palette that I detail later in this page:Color gradients (64 values) fast selection.
Post-effect full screen color blending.
The Quake2 palette is loaded first from the PAK archive file pics/colormap.pcx:Note : Black is at 0, White at 15, Green at 208 Red at the bottom left is 240 (transparent is 255).The first thing done is to use those 256 colors and re-arrange them as seen in pics/colormap.pcx:This 256x320 re-arrangement is used as lookup table and is incredibly clever, unlocking so many many sweat things:64 lines to fake color gradients: The first line is made of the 256 colors from the palette "unrolled". The 63 remaining entries in each column represent vertically a gradient of the initial color, faked with the other 255 colors available. This enable a very simple and fast gradient selection mechanism: First select a color from the palette within [0,255] (this comes from the color texture).
Then add x*256, where x is within [0,63] to get a darkening version of the color initially selected (this comes from the lightmap texture).
You ended up having 64 shades of 256 colors. All this with only 256 colors from a static palette. Amazing.The rest of the image is made of 16x16 squares that enable palette based pixel blending. You can clearly see all the squares made of a Source Color, a Destination Color and intermediate colors inbetween.That's how water translucency is done in the game. As and example the top left square blends between white and black.
Trivia : Quake2's software renderer was initially supposed to be RGB based instead of palette based thank to MMX technology as John Carmack announced it after the release of Quake1 in this video (at 10m17s mark):
MMX is a SIMD technology that would have allowed to work on the three channels of RGB at the cost of one channel hence enabling blending with an acceptable CPU consumption. My guess is that it was scrapped for two reasons: MMX enabled Pentium were rare in 1997, the software renderer was supposed to be the configuration for low budget machines.
Transfering an RGB (16 bits or 32 bits per pixel) instead of a palette based (8 bits per pixel) was consuming too much bandwidth and an acceptable framerate could be be achieved.
If you don't know what radiosity illumination is, read this extremely well illustrated article (mirror): it is pure gold .Here is the first level, textured with the radiosity texture only: Unfortunately the gorgeous colored RGB had to be resampled to grayscale for the software renderer (more about this later).The low resolution of the lightmap is striking here but since they are bilinear filtered (yes even in the software renderer) the end result combined to a color texture is very good.Trivia :The lightmaps could be any size from 2x2 up to 17x17 (contrary to the stated maxsize of 16 in flipcode's article(mirror)) and did not have to be square.
The assembly optimization in the nine r_*.asm accounts for 25% of the codebase, that a pretty impressive proportion and I think quite representative of the effort required by the software renderer: Most of the rasterization routine were hand optimized for x86 processor by Michael Abrash. Most of the Pentium optimization discussed in his "Graphics Programming Black Book" can be seen in action in those files.Trivia : Some method names are the same in the book and Quake2 code (i.e: ScanEdges).
Looking closer at the ref_soft.dll time consumption:As mentioned earlier in this chapter "Writing byte to memory cost a lot":Huge cost (33%) associated to building the Z-Buffer (D_DrawZSpans).Huge cost (22%) associated to writing spans to offscreen buffer (D_DrawZSpans16).Huge cost (13%) associated to generating a surface upon cache miss.The ScanLine algorithm cost is obvious:R_LeadingEdgeR_GenerateSpansR_TrailingEdgeProfiling with Intel's VTune :A few things noticable:18% dedicated to a common issue with software renderers: The cost to transfer the rendered image from RAM to VRAM (BitBlit).
34% dedicated to surface rendition and caching (D_DrawSurfaces).
08% dedicated to lerping the vertices for players/enemies animation(R_AliasPreparePoints).
And even more complete profiling of Quake2 ref_sof with VTune.Profiling with AMD Code Analysis:Kernel Here and ref_sof here.
Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called seismographs. The recording they make is called a seismogram. The seismograph has a base that sets firmly in the ground, and a heavy weight that hangs free. When an earthquake causes the ground to shake, the base of the seismograph shakes too, but the hanging weight does not. Instead the spring or string that it is hanging from absorbs all the movement. The difference in position between the shaking part of the seismograph and the motionless part is what is recorded.
The size of the earthquake is called its magnitude. There is one magnitude for each earthquake. Scientists also talk about theintensity of shaking from an earthquake, and this varies depending on where you are during the earthquake.
P waves are like the lightning, and S waves are like the thunder. The P waves travel faster and shake the ground where you are first. Then the S waves follow and shake the ground also. If you are close to the earthquake, the P and S wave will come one right after the other, but if you are far away, there will be more time between the two.
Scientists then use a method called triangulation to determine exactly where the earthquake was (see image below). It is called triangulation because a triangle has three sides, and it takes three seismographs to locate an earthquake. If you draw a circle on a map around three different seismographs where the radius of each is the distance from that station to the earthquake, the intersection of those three circles is the epicenter!
No, and it is unlikely they will ever be able to predict them. Scientists have tried many different ways of predicting earthquakes, but none have been successful. On any particular fault, scientists know there will be another earthquake sometime in the future, but they have no way of telling when it will happen.
These are two questions that do not yet have definite answers. If weather does affect earthquake occurrence, or if some animals or people can tell when an earthquake is coming, we do not yet understand how it works.
Id unofficially started in September of 1990 when John Carmack, Adrian Carmack, John Romero, and Tom Hall created the first game in the Commander Keen series, Invasion of the Vorticons. One month after Commander Keen was released into shareware, John Carmack, Adrian Carmack, and John Romero left their jobs at Softdisk Publishing and officially began Id Software, on February 1, 1991.As a renown leader in the industry and one of the world's leading developer, Id Software has forged frenetic titles such as Wolfenstein 3-D, Doom, Quake and Rage.Named for the instinctual part of the human psyche first identified by Freud, Id's software development team continues to shape the future of gaming.On June 24, 2009, it was announced that the formerly independent Id Software had been acquired by ZeniMax Media Inc., as part of an effort to bring Id's creative output under the umbrella of Bethesda Softworks (creators of the acclaimed Elder Scrolls RPG franchise) and to provide a solid financial foundation for future Id Software developments.